Retezat Mountains offer some of the most spectacular scenery in Romania.
In terms of relief, Retezat is emerging as a distinct geographic unit, characterized by high growth, with numerous peaks exceeding 2400 m (Peleaga Peak, the highest reaches 2509 m), which dominates the surrounding peaks(Tarcu, Godeanu , Oslea, Valcan and Tulisa) at least 200 m. vertically.
Retezat Mountains massiveness is conferred by the existence of two parallel ridges, running west–east with. North Peak, with a length of 18 km, includes tips: Zlata (2142 m), Sese (2295 m), Judele (2334 m), Bucura (2433 m), Peleaga (2509 m), Papusa (2508 m), Lancita (2089 m) and Brădetu (1861 m).
Following lengthy air and water and glaciers modeling of the mountain contents were formed numerous geo-morphological shapes, of which: glacial cirques and moraines; deep valleys carved by glaciers; alpine lakes of glacial origin; sharp peaks and jagged peaks; bare rocks and large blocks of stone (granite) and scree slopes scattered chaotically; high platforms and saddles connecting the peaks; deep and narrow valleys with abundant and clear waters.
The coldest month, except ridge, is January, and the warmest July, below the altitude of 1100 m, and August at higher altitudes.
In January the average air temperature drops to -5 degrees Celsius to the massif, up to -11 degrees Celsius at the peak. The upper forest, average monthly temperature oscillates around -7 degrees Celsius. Islands cold, with temperatures below -10 degrees Celsius, appear only on high peaks (Peleaga, doll, Retezat, Hail) at higher altitudes of 2200 m.
July average temperature is between 16 degrees Celsius between the foot of the ridge and 6 degrees Celsius. Temperatures below 6 degrees Celsius is met on the main peaks. Isotherm of 10 degrees Celsius, the upper limits of vegetation characteristic tree is found at a height of 1900 m on the southern flank of the massif and 1800 m on the Nordic.
In June recorded the highest levels of rainfall (120-150 mm), while the minimum was recorded in October-November (50-70 mm).
The fog is frequent in a mountain climate. The frequency with which occurs increases with altitude: from 50-75 days on the mountain, 250 days over 1800 m altitude or tips. Visibility due to fog peaks decreases to below 1 km 35-40% of the autumn days, and over 50% of winter days. Visibility is also low ridges and in summer due to clouds covering the tops of the mountains.
The first snow appears in the mountains in early September and the last snow in late June. These intervals decreases with altitude. At 2,000 m altitude is possible to snow in any month of the year. Snow remains in glacial basins in the north of the park even in summer. The average thickness of the snow varies according to the height (70-80 cm from the base of the mountain peaks 90-100 cm), depending on the position and slope (layer can reach a thickness of 3-4m).
Snowfall occurs at altitudes below 1800 m in October – early November and the last snow in April – early May.
Frost is a common phenomenon on tiptoe, even in summer. The number of days with frost mountain area is between 250-275 days / year, and in the lowlands average is between 175-200 days / year. The first frost is recorded on or around November 20 and the last in mid-May.
Tectonic conditions, lithological and morphological Retezat Mountains and peak positioning in relation to maritime air masses, make massif is one of the areas with the highest concentration of moisture and hydrological Romanian Carpathians.
The largest river is Lăpuşnicul Mare which has annual flow 12,9m3 / s. All rivers and streams form waterfalls park.
Over 37.8% of the glacial lakes in Romania are located in Retezat National Park.
Morphometric elements of the lakes varies. For example, in Romania the glacier lake Bucura is the largest, and Zanoaga is the deepest glacier lake . Lakes area is between 300 (Stânişoara I) and 88612 square meters.
Flora and vegetation
Retezat is known for its diversity of floral species comprising 1,190 of the 3,450 known species higher in Romania, among them are also rare. In fact, Retezat National Park was declared in part because more than a third of Romanian flora can be observed within its borders. The above enumeration is added to the rich variety of inferior species.